This list shows the most productive Chinese character components in terms of appearance. This is a good place to start if you want to recognize common components in characters. This won't necessarily help with specific meaning & phonetic information, but it helps you get used to common components.
This list was created by first looking at how many characters have a component from this frequency list of characters. We then get an absolute amount. For example 口 appears in 1503 characters. However, a pure absolute high count could be useless if these characters were very uncommon or rare.
So I decided to create a productive score by adding up a number based on each character's position in the frequency list. The formula was
score = score + 1/frequency_count where the score starts at zero. So characters that appear more frequently will provide a better score for the component.